References: Frequency & Stability in Linguistic Rule Dynamics

Albright, A. & Hayes, B. (2003). Rules vs analogy in English past tenses: a computational/experimental study. Cognition, 90, 119-161.

Bybee, J. (2001). Phonology and language use. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Carroll, R., Svare, R. & Salmons, J.C. (2012). Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of German verbs. Journal of Historical Linguistics, 2(2), 153-175.

Colaiori, F., Castellano, C., Cuskley, C., Loreto, V., Pugliese, M. and Tria, F. (2015). General three-state model with biased population replacement: Analytical solution and application to language dynamics. Physical Review E, 91, 012808.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Ernst Klett Sprachen.

Cuskley, C. (2013). Shared cross-modal associations and the emergence of the lexicon. Doctoral dissertation, University of Edinburgh, February 2013.

Cuskley, C., Pugliese, M., Castellano, C., Colaiori, F., Loreto, V. and Tria, F. (2014). Internal and external dynamics in language: Evidence from verb regularity in a historical corpus of English. PLoS ONE9(8): e102882. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102882.

Dale, R., & Lupyan, G. (2012). Understanding the origins of morphological diversity: The linguistic niche hypothesis. Advances in complex systems15(03n04).

Davies, M. (2012). The Corpus of Historical American English: 400 million words, 1810-2009. Available online at

Dowman, M. (2008). The nature of words in human protolanguages: It’s not a holophrastic-atomic meanings dichotomy. Artificial life14(4), 445-465.

Hickey, R. (Ed.). (2010). The handbook of language contact. John Wiley & Sons.

Lupyan, G., & Dale, R. (2010). Language structure is partly determined by social structure. PloS One5(1), e8559.

Maslen, R.J.C, Theakston, A.L., Lieven, E.V.M., Tomasello, M. (2004). A dense corpus study of past tense and plural over-regularization in English. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 37, 1319-1333.

Michel, J-B. et al. (2011). Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science, 331(6014), 176-182.

Nerbonne, J., & Heeringa, W. (1997). Measuring dialect distance phonetically. In Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the ACL Special Interest Group in Computational Phonology (SIGPHON-97).

Pagel, M., Atkinson, Q. & Meade, A. (2007). Frequency of word-use predicts rates of lexical evolution throughout Indo-European history. Nature, 449, 717-720.

Pagel, M., Atkinson, Q., Calude, A.S. & Meade, A. (2013). Ultraconserved words point to deep language ancestry across Eurasia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1218726110v1-201218726.

Pinker, S. (1999). Words and Rules. New York: Harper Collins.

Pinker, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). The past and future of the past tense. Trends in cognitive sciences6(11), 456-463.

Rumelhart, D. E., & McClelland, J. (1986). On learning the past tenses of English verbs. In McClelland, J. L., Rumelhart, D. E., and the PDP research group (Eds.), Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Volume II. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chapter 18, pp. 216-271.

Trudgill, P. (2011). Sociolinguistic typology: social determinants of linguistic complexity. Oxford University Press.

Wray, A. (1998). Protolanguage as a holistic system for social interaction. Language and Communication, 18, 47-67.

Wray, A., & Grace, G. W. (2007). The consequences of talking to strangers: Evolutionary corollaries of socio-cultural influences on linguistic form. Lingua,117(3), 543-578.

Yang, C. (2002). Knowledge and learning in natural language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.